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~ Sanctorum Mater ~

Instruction on the Procedure of

Diocesan and Eparchial Inquiries on the Causes of Saints

INTRODUCTION

     Mother of the Saints, the Church has always preserved their memory by pro­posing to the faithful examples of holiness in the sequela Christi.[1] In centuries past the Roman Pontiffs saw to the promulgation of adequate norms to aid in reaching the truth in so important a matter for the Church. In our own times, the Supreme Pontiff John Paul II promulgated the Apostolic Constitution, Divinus perfectionis Magister, on 25 January 1983. In it he established, among other things, the procedure for diocesan or eparchial Inquiries to be conducted by the Bishops with a view toward the beatification and canonization of Servants of God.[2]

     In the same Apostolic Constitution, the Supreme Pontiff granted to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints the faculty to publish special norms for conducting such Inquiries[3]  about the life, virtues and the reputation of holiness and of intercessory power, or about the life, martyrdom and the reputation of martyrdom and of intercessory power of Servants of God, and about alleged miracles attributed to the intercession of the Blessed and of Servants of God and, in some cases, about the ancient cult of a Servant of God.[4]

     He also abrogated the dispositions promulgated by his Predecessors and the norms established by the canons of the Code of Canon Law of 1917 in causes of be­atification and canonization.[5]

     On 7 February 1983, the same Supreme Pontiff approved the Normae servandae in Inquisitionibus ab Episcopis faciendis in causis Sanctorum, which establish the special norms to be observed in diocesan or eparchial Inquiries for causes of beatification and canonization.[6] After the promulgation of the Apostolic Constitution and of the Normae servandae, the Congregation, in light of its experience, is publishing the present Instruction[7] in order to facilitate a closer collaboration in the causes of Saints between the Holy See and the Bishops.

     The present Instruction intends to clarify the dispositions of currently existing laws in the causes of Saints, to facilitate their application and indicate the ways of executing them both in recent and in ancient causes. Thus, it is directed to diocesan Bishops, to Eparchs, to those who are equivalent to them in law, and to those who participate in the instructory phase of the Inquiries. The Instruction deals, in a chronological manner, with the procedural course of diocesan or eparchial Inquiries, established by the Normae servandae, indicating in a practical and chronological manner, their application while safeguarding the seriousness of the Inquiries.

     First of all, it deals with the instruction of diocesan or eparchial Inquiries that regard the heroic virtues or martyrdom of Servants of God. Before deciding to initiate the cause, the Bishop will have to verify some facts that will determine his decision. After having decided to initiate the cause, he will begin the real and actual Inquiry by ordering the gathering of the documentary proofs of the cause. If no insurmountable difficulties are revealed, he will proceed to hear witnesses and, finally, to close the Inquiry and send the acts to the Congregation where the Roman phase of the cause will begin, that is, the phase of the study and definitive judgment of the cause itself.

     In regard to Inquiries about alleged miracles, the Instruction indicates some elements of the procedure that, in these last twenty years, have been problematic in the application of the norms regarding the very Inquiries about miracles.

     This Congregation wishes that the Instruction will be a valid aid to the Bishops so that the Christian people, following more closely the example of Christ, the Divine Teacher of Perfection, may give testimony to the world of the Kingdom of heaven. The Dogmatic Constitution of the Second Ecumenical Vatican Council Lumen Gentium teaches: “When we look at the life of those who have faithfully followed Christ, we are inspired with another reason to seek the city that is to come, and at the same time we learn the safest path by which, amid the changing realities of this world and in keeping with the state in life and condition proper to each of us, we will he able to arrive at perfect union with Christ, that is, holiness”.[8]

PART I

Causes of Beatification and Canonization

 

 

 Title I

Preliminary Elements

 

Art. 1 - § 1. The present Instruction deals with causes of beatification and canonization that are regulated by particular pontifical law.[9]

§ 2. These causes have, as their scope, the gathering of the proofs in order to attain moral certitude on the heroic virtues or the martyrdom of the Servant of God whose beatification and canonization are asked.

§ 3. Particular prescriptions, as well as the procedural norms of the Code of Canon Law and of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, which regard the procedure for the gathering of documentary proofs and, in particular, for the hearing of witnesses, must be observed.[10]

Art. 2 - In the present Instruction, the Inquiry is equivalent to that process conducted in causes of beatification and canonization in conformity with canon law previously in force.[11]

Art. 3 - In the present Instruction, the norms are the same for diocesan Bishops and Eparchs as well as for those who have the same powers in law according to can. 381 § 2 CIC 1983.

 

Title II

Reputation of Holiness or of Martyrdom and of Intercessory Power

 

Art. 4 - § 1. The cause of beatification and canonization regards a Catholic who in life, in death and after death has enjoyed a reputation of holiness by living all the Christian virtues in an heroic manner; or enjoys a reputation of martyrdom because, having followed Christ more closely, he has sacrificed his life in the act of martyrdom.

§ 2. The Catholic whose cause of beatification and canonization has been initiated is called Servant of God.

Art. 5 - § 1. The reputation of holiness is the opinion that has spread among the faithful about the purity and integrity of life of the Servant of God and about the virtues practiced by him to an heroic degree.[12]

§ 2. The reputation of martyrdom is the opinion that has spread among the faithful about the death endured by the Servant of God for the Faith or for a virtue connected to the Faith.[13]

Art. 6 - The reputation of intercessory power is the opinion that has spead among the faithful about the graces and favors received from God through the intercession of the Servant of God.[14]

Art. 7 - § 1. Before deciding to initiate the cause, the diocesan or eparchial Bishop must verify if, among a significant portion of the people of God, the Servant of God enjoys an authentic and widespread reputation of holiness or of martyrdom as well as an authentic and widespread reputation of intercessory power.[15]

§ 2. This reputation must be spontaneous and not artificially produced. It must be stable, continuous, widespread among trustworthy people and existing among a significant portion of the People of God.[16]

Art. 8 - § 1. First of all, the postulator must collect documentation on the reputation of holiness or of martyrdom and on the reputation of intercessory power and, in the name of the petitioner, present it to the competent Bishop.[17]

§ 2. The Bishop must evaluate the documentation in order to ascertain the existence of the reputation of holiness or of martyrdom, and of the reputation of intercessory power, as well as the importance of the cause for the Church.[18]

§ 3. The documentation is to be inserted later among the acts of the Inquiry.[19]

 

 Title III

Petitioner of the Cause

 

Art. 9 - The petitioner promotes the cause that is to be instructed on the heroic virtues or on the martyrdom of the Servant of God, and assumes its moral and financial obligations.[20]

Art. 10 - § 1. The petitioner of the cause may be the diocesan or eparchial Bishop ex officio, juridic persons, such as dioceses or eparchies, equivalent structures that have jurisdiction, parishes, Institutes of Consecrated Life or Societies of Apostolic Life, or clerical and/or lay Associations of the faithful recognized by ecclesiastical authority.

§ 2. The petitioner of the cause may also be a physical person, that is, any member of the People of God, provided that he is able to guarantee the advancement of the cause in its diocesan or eparchial and Roman phases.[21]

Art. 11 - § 1. The juridic or physical person establishes itself as the petitioner of the cause by means of a notarized document.

§ 2. The Bishop is to accept this act after having verified the ability of the juridic or physical person to assume the obligations inherent to the role of petitioner.

 

Title IV

Postulator of the Cause

 

Art. 12 - § 1. By means of a mandate written according to the norm of law, the petitioner nominates a procurator, or postulator, for the diocesan or eparchial phase of the cause.[22]

§ 2. In the name of the same petitioner the postulator follows the course of the Inquiry with diocesan or eparchial authorities.

§ 3. The office of postulator can be filled by a priest, a member of an Institute of Consecrated Life, of a Society of Apostolic Life, or of a clerical and/or lay Association, or by a layman or a laywoman.

§ 4. The postulator must be an expert in theology, canon law and history, as well as in the praxis of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints.[23]

Art. 13 - § 1. The diocesan or eparchial postulator, duly nominated by the petitioner, must be approved by the competent Bishop.[24]

§ 2. The mandate of nomination of the postulator and/or vice-postulator is to be inserted into the acts of the Inquiry.[25]

Art. 14 - § 1. The diocesan or eparchial postulator may be substituted by others who are called vice-postulators.

§ 2. The vice-postulator is nominated by the postulator himself, by means of a mandate written according to the norm of law, after he has first obtained the consent of the petitioner.[26]

Art. 15 - § 1. During the instruction of the Inquiry, the diocesan or eparchial postulator or vice-postulator is to reside in the diocese or eparchy in which the Inquiry is being instructed.

§ 2. In the Roman phase of the cause, the postulator, duly nominated by the petitioner with a new mandate written according to the norm of law, must be approved by the Congregation and must stably reside in Rome.[27]

§ 3. If the postulator of the diocesan or eparchial phase of the cause is the postulator general of an Institute of Consecrated Life, of a Society of Apostolic Life or of a clerical and/or lay Association to which the Servant of God belonged, the pos­tulator maintains his office even in the Roman phase without a new mandate.

Art. 16 - The postulator of the Roman phase of the cause may not appoint a vice-postulator as his substitute to deal with the Congregation.

Art. 17 - § 1. First and foremost the postulator is to conduct research into the life of the Servant of God, which is useful for knowing the reputation of holiness or of martyrdom, the reputation of intercessory power and of the importance of the cause for the Church.

§ 2. The postulator is to inform the competent Bishop of the result of his research. He is to take care not to hide eventual discoveries contrary to the reputation of holiness or of martyrdom and to the reputation of intercessory power enjoyed by the Servant of God.[28]

§ 3. The postulator is obliged to act for the greater good of the Church and, therefore, to seek the truth conscientiously and honestly. He is to indicate eventual difficulties so as to avoid also the necessity of further investigations that will delay the progress of the cause.[29]

Art. 18 - The postulator is to administrate the funds offered for the cause according to the norms issued by the Congregation.[30]

Art. 19 - § 1. The postulator must hand over to the experts in historical matters and in matters that pertain to archives all the documents of the cause that may be in his possession.

§ 2. The postulator may not gather in a juridical manner either the documentary proofs or the eventual oral depositions of witnesses in the cause.[31]

§ 3. The task of gathering the proofs, according to the norm of law, belongs only to the diocesan or eparchial Bishop and to those who will be duly nominated for this task according to what is established by the Normae servandae.

 

Title V

Competent Bishop

 

Art. 20 - It is the right of diocesan Bishops, Eparchs and those who are equivalent to them in law, to investigate, within the limits of their own jurisdiction, the life, virtues or martyrdom, and reputation of holiness or of martyrdom, alleged miracles and, if it be the case, the ancient cult of a Servant of God, whose beatification and canonization are asked.[32]

Art. 21 - § 1. The Bishop competent to instruct the diocesan or eparchial Inquiry into heroic virtues or martyrdom is the one in whose territory the Servant of God died.[33]

§ 2. The Bishop competent to instruct the diocesan or eparchial Inquiry into an alleged miracle is the one in whose territory the alleged miracle occurred.[34]

Art. 22 - § 1. Upon the request of the Bishop who intends to initiate the cause, the Congregation can transfer competence to another ecclesiastical forum, that is, to another diocese or eparchy, for particular reasons (e.g., where the more important proofs are located or where the Servant of God spent the greater part of his life).

§ 2. The requesting Bishop must obtain the written consent of the competent Bishop.

§ 3. In the cause of a group of martyrs, it will be necessary to obtain the written consent of all the Bishops of the dioceses or eparchies where the Servants of God died.

Art. 23 - § 1. After having obtained such consent, the Bishop mentioned in Art. 22 § 1 of the present Instruction must send his written request to the Congregation whose competence it is to recognize the particular circumstances of the case.[35]

§ 2. In the request he is to explain the reasons for the transfer of competence and, at the same time, attach a photocopy of the written consent of the competent Bishop.

Art. 24 - § 1. Once the particular circumstances of the case have been verified, the Congregation will grant the transfer of competence of forum by means of a rescript which is to be inserted into the acts of the First Session of the Inquiry.[36]

§ 2. The requesting Bishop is to begin the diocesan or eparchial Inquiry only after he has received the rescript of the Congregation.

 

PART II

Preliminary Phase of the Cause

 

 

 Title I

Preliminary Elements

 

Art. - § 1. In recent causes the postulator is to present to the diocesan or eparchial Bishop the Libellus (supplex libellus), in which he requests the initiation of the cause.[37]

§ 2. The libellus may be presented to the Bishop no sooner than five years after the death of the Servant of God.[38]

§ 3. Before accepting the Libellus, the Bishop must verify whether, in that period of time, an authentic reputation of holiness or of martyrdom and of intercessory power has developed among the People of God.

Art. 26 - § 1. If the Libellus is presented after more than thirty years have passed since the death of the Servant of God, the postulator must specify the reasons which have caused such a delay.

§ 2. The Bishop is to ascertain and to judge whether there has been any fraud or deceit on the part of the petitioner in delaying the presentation of the Libellus.[39]

Art. 27 - § 1. The Bishop is to attest to the absence of fraud or deceit by means of a written declaration in which he is to clarify the particular reasons for the delay. § 2. The declaration must be inserted into the acts of the Inquiry.[40]

 

Title II

Recent Causes and Ancient Causes

 

Art. 28 - § 1. The procedure to be followed in the instruction of the diocesan or eparchial Inquiry is determined by the type of proofs.

§ 2. A cause may be recent or ancient.

Art. 29 - § 1. A cause is recent when the virtues or martyrdom of the Servant of God can be proven through the oral depositions of eyewitnesses.[41]

§ 2. In a recent cause, the Inquiry will concentrate mainly upon the hearing of witnesses, while always keeping in mind the necessity to search for and gather all the documentary proofs of the cause.[42]

Art. 30 - § 1. A cause is ancient when the proofs regarding the virtues in specie or the martyrdom of the Servant of God can be brought to light only from written sources as there are no eyewitnesses of the heroicity of virtues or of the martyrdom of the Servant of God.[43]

§ 2. In an ancient cause, the Inquiry will prevalently regard the research of the experts in historical matters and in matters that pertain to archives, while keeping in mind the necessity to hear some witnesses about the existence of the reputation of holiness or of martyrdom and of intercessory power and, if it be the case, about cult given to the Servant of God, in more recent times.[44]

 

Title III

Causes on Heroic Virtues or on Martyrdom

 

Art. 31 - § 1. If one intends to prove the heroicity of the virtues of the Servant of God, the Inquiry must be instructed “on the life, the heroic virtues and the reputation of holiness and of intercessory power”.

§ 2. If one intends to prove the martyrdom of the Servant of God, the Inquiry must he instructed “on the life, the martyrdom and the reputation of martyrdom and of intercessory power”.[45]

Art. 32 - § 1. One Inquiry may be instructed on a number of Servants of God only in the case of the alleged martyrdom of Servants of God who have been killed during the same persecution and in the same place.[46]

§ 2. In such causes, one Servant of God must be chosen as the head of the group and the other individuals listed as companions and alleged martyrs.

§ 3. If possible, the Bishop is to include in one group men and women Servants of God who represent the various states of life in the Church.

Art. 33 - § 1. In the case of a so called ancient Blessed, that is, of a Servant of God who is the object of cult from time immemorial according to the Decrees of Urban VIII, when seeking the confirmation of that cult the Bishop is to proceed ac­cording to the Normae servandae which are established for ancient causes.[47]

§ 2. The postulator is to present to the Bishop the Libellus together with the documentation requested for ancient causes.[48]

Art. 34 - If the decree of confirmation of cult of an ancient Blessed has been published, as has happened in the past, without the previous demonstration of heroic virtues or martyrdom, in view to the canonization of the ancient Blessed, the Bishop is to proceed to the instruction of the Inquiry into the life and heroic virtues or martyrdom by following the procedure established by the Normae servandae for ancient causes.

Art. 35 - Once the decree on the confirmation of cult and on the heroic virtues or martyrdom of the Blessed has been promulgated, the ancient Blessed may proceed to canonization by means of the approval of one miracle that took place after the confirmation of cult.

 

Title IV

Libellus

 

Art. 36 - § 1. The Libellus is the written request with which the postulator, in the name of the petitioner, officially asks the competent Bishop to initiate the cause on the virtues or the martyrdom of the Servant of God.[49]

§ 2. Since the Inquiry into alleged miracles is instructed separately from that on the virtues or the martyrdom of the Servant of God, the Libellus that requests the beginning of the Inquiry must be presented separately from that for the virtues of the Servant of God.[50]

§ 3. This request must indicate, at least in a summary fashion, on what facts and proofs the petitioner bases himself in order to demonstrate what he is affirming. The petitioner and the postulator must sign it, and indicate the date and place where they reside.[51]

Art. 37 - Attached to the written request on the virtues or the martyrdom, the postulator is to present to the diocesan or eparchial Bishop:

1° in both recent and ancient causes, a biography of a certain historical value on the Servant of God, or otherwise an accurate chronological report on the life and activities of the Servant of God, on his virtues or martyrdom, on the reputation of holiness or of martyrdom and on the reputation of intercessory power, without omitting that which seems to be contrary or less favorable to the cause itself;[52]

2° an authentic copy of all the published writings of the Servant of God;[53]

3° finally, a list of eventual witnesses, that is:

a. in recent causes: a list of the persons who can contribute to ascertaining the truth on the virtues or the martyrdom of the Servant of God, as well as on the reputation of holiness or of martyrdom, and on the reputation of intercessory power, not omitting those who could call such a reputation into question;[54]

b. in ancient causes: a list of some witnesses who can testify about the reputation of holiness or of martyrdom and of intercessory power existing until the present among a significant portion of the People of God.[55]

Art. 38 - § 1. Attached to the written request for the instruction of the Inquiry on an alleged miracle, the postulator must present to the diocesan or eparchial Bishop:

1° a brief and accurate report on the particular circumstances of the case;

2° a list of witnesses;

3° all the documents relative to the case.[56]

§ 2. In the case of allegedly miraculous healings, medical and clinical documents as well as test results are necessary (e.g., clinical records, medical records, laboratory exams and analyses).

Art. 39 - The written request of the postulator and the attached documentation, which are mentioned in Artt. 37 and 38 of the present Instruction, are to be inserted into the acts of the First or Opening Session of the Inquiry.[57]

 

Title V

Acceptance of the Libellus

 

Art. 40 - § 1. Although Art. 45 § 1 of the present Instruction maintains its full force, the diocesan or eparchial Bishop may accept the written request for the initiation of the cause after having evaluated the existence of an authentic and wide­spread reputation of holiness or martyrdom and of intercessory power.[58]

§ 2. If, for just reasons, the Bishop should decide not to accept the written request, he must communicate his decision to the postulator by means of a decree in which he is to explain his reasons for it.

 

Title VI

Consultation with Other Bishops

 

Art. 41 - § 1. Once he has accepted the written request, the Bishop must seek the opinion of at least the regional conference of Bishops as to whether it is advisable to initiate the cause.[59]

§ 2. In the case of Eastern Churches, the Bishop must seek the opinion of the Synod of Bishops of Churches who are headed by a Patriarch or a Major Archbishop, or else of the Council of Hierarchs of Metropolitan Churches sui iuris as to whether it is advisable to initiate the cause.

Art. 42 - § 1. In order better to express collegiality this opinion is to be sought during a meeting of the same Bishops.

§ 2. The result of the meeting is to be communicated in writing to the Bishop, who sought the opinion, preferably by the President of the Conference of Bishops, by the Patriarch, by the Major Archbishop or by the Metropolitan of Metropolitan Churches sui iuris, and signed also by the Secretary of the respective Conference, Synod or Council.

§ 3. This document is to be inserted into the acts of the Inquiry.[60]

 

Title VII

Publication of the Libellus

 

Art. 43 - § 1. The Bishop must make public the petition of the postulator to initiate the cause in his own diocese or eparchy by means of an edict that is to be affixed to the Cathedral Church or published in the diocesan newspaper.

§ 2. If he thinks it advisable, he is to make it public in other dioceses or eparchies as well, with the consent of the respective Bishops.

§ 3. In the edict he must invite all the faithful to bring to his attention any useful information regarding the cause.[61]

§ 4. The edict is to be inserted into the acts of the Inquiry.[62]

Art. 44 - § 1. If some obstacle of significant importance against the cause emerges from the information he has received, the Bishop must notify the postulator so that he can perhaps remove it.[63]

§ 2. In the case in which the obstacle has not been removed and the Bishop decides that the cause cannot proceed, he must communicate this to the postulator by means of a decree in which he is to give the reasons for his decision.[64]

 

Title VIII

Nihil Obstat” of the Holy See

 

Art. 45 - § 1. Although Art. 40 § 1 of the present Instruction maintains its full force, the diocesan or eparchial Bishop, before accepting the written request of the postulator to initiate the cause, would be well advised to ask the Congregation for the Causes of Saints whether there is, on the part of the Holy See, any obstacle to the cause.[65]

§ 2. The Bishop is to send to the Congregation his request for the “nihil obstat” together with a short report in which he illustrates the biographical data of the Servant of God (date, place and diocese of birth and of death, activity in the Church, etc.) and the importance of the cause for the Church.

Art. 46 - The Congregation will send the answer to the Bishop in a letter which is to be included in the acts of the cause.[66]

 

PART III

Instruction of the Cause

 

 

Title I

Officials of the Inquiry in General

 

Art. 47 - § 1. The Bishop and all those who take part in the Inquiry must see to it with the greatest diligence and commitment that, in gathering all the proofs, nothing is omitted which in any way regards the cause. The positive outcome of the cause, in fact, depends to a great extent, on its good instruction.[67]

§ 2. The Officials of the Inquiry are: the Episcopal Delegate, the Promotor of Justice, the Notary and, in the case of the Inquiry into an allegedly miraculous healing, the Medical Expert or, in that of the Inquiry into an alleged miracle of another nature, the Technical Expert.

Art. 48 - § 1. By means of a decree the Bishop must nominate all the Officials for each and every Inquiry.

§ 2. The decrees of nomination are to be co-signed by the Chancellor of the diocese or eparchy in order to guarantee their juridic validity.[68]

§ 3. The decrees, then, must be inserted into the acts of the First or Opening Session of the Inquiry.[69]

Art. 49 - No Official may carry out more than one office in the same Inquiry.

Art. 50 - § 1. When the Inquiry regards a Servant of God belonging to an Institute of Consecrated Life, to a Society of Apostolic Life or to a clerical and/or lay Association of the faithful, the Bishop must not entrust an office to those who belong to the same Institute, Society or Association.

§ 2. If necessary, the Bishop may nominate as an expert in historical matters or in matters pertaining to archives someone belonging to the same Institute, Society or Association as the Servant of God.[70]

Art. 51 - § 1. The diocesan or eparchial Bishop, all those who have been nominated for an office, and the postulator or, if it be the case, the vice-postulator, must swear an oath to fulfill faithfully their task and to maintain the secret of office.[71]

§ 2. This oath is to be taken during the First or Opening Session of the Inquiry.

§ 3. All are to sign their names at the bottom of the relative formula of the oath that is to be inserted into the acts of the First Session itself.

Art. 52 - When the Inquiry is concluded with the Last or Closing Session, all those who have taken part in the Inquiry lose their office, including the diocesan or eparchial postulator and vice-postulator.

 

Title II

Officials of the Inquiry in Particular

 

 Chapter I

Episcopal Delegate

 

Art. 53 - The Bishop can instruct the cause of beatification and canonization either directly or through his Delegate.[72]

Art. 54 - The Episcopal Delegate must be a priest competent in theology, canon law and, in the case of ancient causes, also in historical matters.[73]

Art. 55 - Only one Episcopal Delegate is to be nominated for each cause.

 

Chapter II

Promotor of Justice

 

Art. 56 - § 1. The Promotor of Justice must be vigilant so that everything prescribed by law is faithfully observed in instructing the cause.

§ 2. He must also see to it that all the acts and documents relative to the object of the Inquiry have been gathered in a thorough manner.

§ 3. The Promotor of Justice, therefore, must collaborate with the Episcopal Delegate in an active and methodical manner.[74]

Art. 57 - The Promotor of Justice must be a priest competent in theology, canon law and, in the case of ancient causes, also in historical matters.[75]

Art. 58 - Only one Promotor of Justice is to be nominated for each cause.

 

Chapter III

Notary

 

Art. 59 - § 1. The Notary is to transcribe the declarations of the witnesses and draw up the acts of the Inquiry according to the instructions of the Episcopal Delegate.[76]

§ 2. If necessary, the Bishop is to nominate Adjunct Notaries.

§ 3. Any Catholic may carry out this office.

 

Chapter IV

Medical Expert

 

Art. 60 - § 1. In the Inquiry on an allegedly miraculous healing, the Bishop must nominate a Medical Expert.

§ 2. In the Inquiry on an allegedly miraculous fact of another nature, the Bishop must nominate a Technical Expert.

§ 3. After he has sworn to fulfill faithfully his task and to maintain the secret of office, the Expert is to help the Promotor of Justice in preparing the Interrogatories for the witnesses.[77]

§ 4. The Expert must participate in the Sessions that are held for hearing the witnesses, in order to ask, through the Episcopal Delegate, for clarifications in the area of his competency, according to necessity and circumstances.[78]

 

Title III

Place of the Sessions

 

Art. 61 - § 1. The Sessions are to be held in a fixed place of the diocesan or eparchial Tribunal, or in another suitable place.[79]

§ 2. The Sessions must not be conducted in a house of the Institute of Consecrated Life, of the Society of Apostolic Life or of the Association to which the Ser­vant of God belonged.


 PART IV

Gathering of Documentary Proofs

 

 

Title I

Theological Censors

Art. 62 - § 1. By means of distinct decrees the Bishop must nominate at least two Theological Censors who are to examine the published writings of the Servant of God that were handed over to him by the postulator of the cause.[80]

§ 2. Published writings of the Servant of God are any of his works printed either by the Servant of God himself or by others.[81]

§ 3. If the quantity of the published writings demands it, they can be subdivided among various Censors provided that each writing is examined by at least two Censors.

Art. 63 - § 1. The names of the Theological Censors must remain secret.

§ 2. The Theological Censors must separately swear an oath before the Bishop and in the presence of the Chancellor to fulfill faithfully their task and to maintain the secret of office.[82]

§ 3. The oaths are to be written down and, together with the decrees of nomination, inserted into the acts of the Inquiry.

Art. 64 - § 1. The Theological Censors must examine the published writings of the Servant of God and verify that there is nothing contained in them contrary to Faith and good morals.[83]

§ 2. It is advisable that the Theological Censors also examine the unpublished writings of the Servant of God and express their opinion on the absence of elements contrary to Faith and good morals.[84]

§ 3. In their opinions the Theological Censors are also to delineate the personality and spirituality of the Servant of God.

Art. 65 - § 1. Each Theological Censor must express his opinion separately and in writing.

§ 2. When he hands over his own opinion to the Bishop, each Censor must swear an oath to have fulfilled faithfully his office.

§ 3. The oath is to be transcribed and inserted into the acts of the Inquiry.

Art. 66 - According to general practice in the causes of Saints, the Theological Censors are not called to testify regarding their opinions.

Art. 67 - The Bishop is to insert into the acts of the First Session of the Inquiry the written opinions of the Theological Censors or else a declaration regarding the eventual inexistence of any published writings of the Servant of God.[85]

 

Title II

Experts in Historical Matters and in Matters that pertain to Archives
(“Historical Commission”)

 

 Chapter I

Experts

 

Art. 68 - § 1. In all causes, both recent and ancient, the Bishop must nominate, by decree, at least three experts in historical matters and in matters that pertain to archives, who make up the so-called Historical Commission.[86]

§ 2. The task of the experts is to search out and gather all the writings of the Servant of God, those not yet published, as well as each and every historical document, either handwritten or printed, which in any way regard the cause.[87]

§ 3. Whereas proofs are gathered formally by means of a canonical process, the office of expert may not be conferred either on the postulator, the vice-postulator or their collaborators.[88]

Art. 69 - § 1. The Bishop may nominate as an expert in historical matters and in matters that pertain to archives someone who belongs to the Institute of Consecrated Life, to the Society of Apostolic Life or to the clerical and/or lay Association, to which the Servant of God belonged.[89]

§ 2. Such a nomination may be useful for consulting the archives of the Institute, Society or Association to which the Servant of God belonged.

Art. 70 - § 1. In the presence of the Bishop and the Chancellor of the diocese or eparchy, the experts are to swear to fulfill their task faithfully and to maintain the secret of office.[90]

§ 2. The oath is to be transcribed and inserted into the acts of the Inquiry.

§ 3. The experts are to sign at the bottom of the respective formula of the oath.

 

Chapter II

Searching and Gathering of Documentary Proofs

 

Art. 71 - Searching for the documents is to be carried out in the archives of all the places where the Servant of God lived and worked.[91]

Art. 72 - § 1. An authenticated photocopy of all the unpublished writings and of all the documents gathered by the experts is to be inserted into the acts of the Inquiry.[92]

§ 2. A simple list of the writings and documents discovered during the search is not sufficient.

 

Chapter III

“Report” of the Experts

 

Art. 73 - § 1. After the search and collection of the unpublished writings and documents have been concluded, the experts must prepare one single, precise and detailed Report, that, together with the documentation gathered, they are to hand over to the Bishop or his Delegate.

§ 2. In the Report, the experts must:

1° indicate and testify that they fulfilled their task faithfully;

2° present a list of the archives consulted;

3° include a list of the writings and documents discovered;

4° express a judgment on the authenticity and value of the same writings and documents;

5° express a judgment on the personality and spirituality of the Servant of God as they appear in the same writings and documents, not omitting to indicate eventual negative aspects.[93]

§ 3. The experts must indicate eventual obstacles to the cause to the Bishop or his Delegate who is to inform the postulator so that he can remove them.[94]

§ 4. The Report is to be inserted into the acts of the Inquiry.[95]

Art. 74 - If difficulties of a theological or moral nature emerge from the unpublished writings of the Servant of God, the experts must inform the Bishop or his Delegate so that he may ask the Theological Censors for an opinion.[96]

Art. 75 - § 1. The Report must be signed in solidum, that is, by all the experts of the Historical Commission.

§2. This does not exclude the possibility that eventually differing opinions of the individual experts may be indicated in the Report.

 

Chapter IV

Testimony of the Experts

 

Art. 76 - § 1. The experts must be called to testify separately as ex officio witnesses.[97]

§ 2. They are to declare under oath:

1° that they conducted all the investigations;

2° that they gathered all that which pertains to the cause;

3° that they have neither changed nor destroyed any document or text.[98]

§ 3. Other ex officio questions, that deal with the personality and the work of the Servant of God, may be asked of the witnesses in order to clarify negative ele­ments of a certain importance in the cause.[99]


 

PART V

Gathering of Proofs from Witnesses

 

 

 Title I

Interrogatories

 

Art. 77 - § 1. Recent and ancient causes follow the same procedure.

§2. The witnesses, therefore, are heard only after the gathering of documentary proofs, foreseen in Part IV: Gathering of Documentary Proofs of the present Instruction, unless there is a possibility of losing the oral depositions of eyewitnesses. In such a case, the provision of “lest proofs be lost” (“ne pereant probationes”), that is dealt with in Artt. 82-84 of the present Instruction, may be invoked.

Art. 78 - § 1. All the material gathered up to this point, that is, all that which is attached to the written request of the postulator, the opinions of the Theological Censors and the material gathered by the experts in historical matters and in matters pertaining to archives, together with their Report, is to be handed over by the Bishop to the Promotor of Justice.[100]

§2. The Promotor of Justice is to draw up the Interrogatories for the hearing of the witnesses. If necessary he may do this with the eventual collaboration of some experts.[101]

§3. The Promotor of Justice is to sign the Interrogatories and add the place and date at the end of them.

Art. 79 - § 1. The Interrogatories are to be prepared in such a way so as to elicit the responses that show knowledge of concrete facts and the source of that knowledge on the part of the witness.

§2.  The Interrogatories are to begin with questions about the identity of the witness and his relationship to the Servant of God.[102]

§3. The questions are to be brief, not confusing, not deceptive, not suggesting answers and adapted to the understanding of the witness. They are also not to include simultaneously more than one question.[103]

§4. In the case of the Inquiry on the virtues, the Interrogatories must contain questions that require, on the part of the witness, precise and specific examples of the exercise of the individual virtues.

Art. 80 - § 1. The Interrogatories must not be made known to the witnesses before their depositions.[104]

§ 2. The postulator or the vice postulator may make biographical data of the Servant of God available to the witnesses.

Art. 81 - If the Inquiry regards an alleged miracle, the material gathered by the postulator must be handed over by the competent Bishop to an expert in the field. He is to formulate specific questions that are to be inserted later into the Interrogatories to be prepared by the Promotor of Justice.[105]

 

Title II

“Lest Proofs be Lost” (“Ne pereant probationes”)

 

Art. 82 - § 1. The Bishop or his Delegate can apply the provision of “lest proofs be lost in the case in which the proofs of the witness, that are of a certain relevancy to the cause, are at risk of being lost (e.g. the urgency to hear some wit­nesses who are of an advanced age or ill).[106]

§ 2. On the basis of the aforementioned provision, these witnesses may be heard even before the gathering of documentary proofs has been completed.

§ 3. For taking the testimony of such witnesses, the Bishop must proceed according to what is contained in Artt. 47-61 and Artt. 86-115 of the present Instruc­tion.

Art. 83 - § 1. In the case in which a person may wish to leave testimony on the life or death of someone whose cause is not in progress, he may give to the Bishop a declaration written “ad futuram rei memoriam”.

§ 2. Such a declaration must be signed by the writer and countersigned by an ecclesiastical or civil Notary in order to be accepted as proof in an eventual cause.

§ 3. The Bishop is to keep the declaration in a safe place in the diocesan or eparchial Chancery.

Art. 84 - The author of the declaration “ad futuram rei memoriam” must be called to testify in the eventual diocesan or eparchial Inquiry.

 

Title III

Citations for the Sessions

 

Art. 85 - § 1. The place and time of the Sessions are to be communicated in ample time to the Promotor of Justice, the Notary or the Adjunct Notary and to the witnesses that are called to testify.

§ 2. The convocation is to be signed by the Bishop or his Delegate and duly transcribed in the procedural acts. It is to be executed either through citation or in some other completely safe way.[107]

§ 3. Those convoked are obliged to appear and are, if unable, to inform the Bishop or his Delegate as to the reason for their absence.[108]

 

Title IV

First Session or Opening Session of the Inquiry

 

Chapter I

Participants

 

Art. 86 - § 1. The First Session of the Inquiry, conducted for the swearing of the oaths of all the Officials of the Inquiry, is to be presided over by the diocesan or eparchial Bishop.

§ 2. For just reasons, he may nominate, by means of decree, a priest as his substitute.

§ 3. The faithful may participate at the celebration of the First Session.[109]

Art. 87 - § 1. All the Officials, that is, the Episcopal Delegate, the Promotor of Justice, the Notary, the Adjunct Notaries and, in the case of an Inquiry on an allegedly miraculous event, the Expert, duly nominated by the Bishop, must participate at the First Session.[110]

§ 2. During the First Session the abovementioned, together with the Bishop and the diocesan or eparchial postulator and/or vice-postulator, must swear to fulfill faithfully their task and to maintain the secret of office.[111]

Art. 88 - It is of extreme importance always to refrain from every act (e.g., liturgical celebrations, panegyric speeches in honor of the Servant of God, etc.), inside and outside of churches, that could mislead the faithful into thinking wrongly that the initiation of the Inquiry necessarily implies the beatification and canonization of the Servant of God.[112]

 

Chapter II

Acts of the First Session

 

Art. 89 - The acts of the cause already completed and all the material already gathered must be inserted into the acts of the First Session:

1° any rescript of the transfer of competence;[113]

2° all the documentation presented to the Bishop for the purpose of demonstrating the reputation of holiness or of martyrdom and of intercessory power enjoyed by the Servant of God;[114]

3° the mandate of nomination of the postulator and/or vice-postulator;[115]

4° the Libellus of the postulator together with the material prescribed by n. 10 of the “Normae servandae”;[116]

5° any declaration on the particular reasons for the delay of the initiation of the cause;[117]

6° the opinion of the other Bishops consulted on the advisability of the cause;[118]

7° the edict of the Bishop;[119]

8° the letter of the “Nihil Obstat of the Holy See;[120]

9° the decrees of nomination of the Officials of the Inquiry;[121]

10° the written opinions of the Theological Censors or the declaration on the inexistence of published writings;[122]

11° the material gathered by the experts in historical matters and in matters pertaining to archives, together with their Report.[123]
 

 Chapter III

Notary of the First Session

 

Art. 90 - § 1. The office of the Notary of the First Session must be distinct from that of the Notary and the Adjunct Notary of the Inquiry.

§ 2. As no one may validate his own juridical act, the Chancellor of the diocese or of the eparchy in which the Inquiry is being conducted generally executes the of­fice of the Notary of the First Session.[124]

 

Title V

Participation of the Promotor of Justice

 

Art. 91 - § 1. Since his specific function is to be the protector of the public good in causes of great importance, the Promotor of Justice must participate, in an active and methodical manner, with physical and continuous presence, at all the single Sessions of the Inquiry, and in direct collaboration with the Episcopal Delegate.

§ 2. The Promotor of Justice is to suggest to the Episcopal Delegate specific questions to be asked of the witnesses that are necessary and useful for examining the case more deeply.[125]

§ 3. The Promotor of Justice may be absent only for grave reasons and this must be recorded in the acts of the relative Session of the Inquiry.

§ 4.  The Promotor of Justice must read the acts of the Sessions for which he was absent and indicate to the Bishop or his Delegate eventual difficulties that are to be clarified in the course of the Inquiry.[126]

 

Title VI

Participation of the Medical Expert

 

Art. 92 - § 1. In the instruction of the Inquiry on an allegedly miraculous healing, the Medical Expert must swear an oath during the First Session of the Inquiry to fulfill faithfully his task and to maintain the secret of office.[127]

§ 2. Furthermore, he must participate at all the individual Sessions in direct collaboration with the Episcopal Delegate and suggest to him, if necessary, specific questions to be asked of the witnesses that may be useful for examining the case more deeply.[128]

§ 3. Should the Expert consider it expedient to ask specific questions of a witness who has already been examined, it is recommended that the witness be recalled to testify.

§ 4. The Expert may be absent only for grave reasons that are to be transcribed and inserted into the acts of the relative Session of the Inquiry.

Art. 93 - § 1. With a view towards the examination of the alleged miracle by the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, it is recommended that the Medical Expert prepare a report.

§ 2. In the report he is to express a judgment on the quality of the medical and technical witnesses.

§ 3. The report is to be sent together with the letter that the Bishop or his Delegate will send to the Prefect of the Congregation.[129]

 

Title VII

Participation of the Postulator and/or the Vice-Postulator

 

Art. 94 - In view of the established jurisprudence of the Congregation, the postulator and/or the vice-postulator must not participate at the Sessions held for tak­ing the testimony of witnesses.[130]

Art. 95 - § 1. After the publication of the acts of the Inquiry, the postulator is to be given the faculty to look at the depositions of the witnesses and at the documents.

§ 2. If it be the case, the postulator may ask the Bishop or his Delegate to supplement the proofs with new witnesses and/or documents.[131]

 

Title VIII

Witnesses and Their Depositions

 

 Chapter I

Who can be a Witness

 

Art. 96 - The witnesses who must be called to testify in the Inquiry are:

1° those witnesses indicated by the postulator in his Libellus;[132]

ex officio witnesses, especially if they are contrary to the cause;[133]

3° corroborating witnesses, that is, those indicated by the witnesses during their depositions;

4° the experts in historical matters and matters that pertain to archives as ex officio witnesses;[134]

5° in the Inquiry on an allegedly miraculous healing, also those doctors who
treated the person healed and the medical experts ab inspectione.
[135]

Art. 97 - The Bishop or his Delegate may limit an excessive number of witnesses.[136]

Art. 98 - § 1. In order to prove the heroic virtues or the martyrdom of the Servant of God in recent causes, there must be eyewitnesses (de visu), that is, those who must have had direct and immediate knowledge of the Servant of God. First of all, blood relatives and other relations must be called to testify.[137]

§ 2. If necessary, others who have received information about the Servant of God from those who have had direct and immediate knowledge (de auditu a videntibus) may be added to these eyewitnesses.[138]

§ 3. Taking the testimony of witnesses, who have received information about the Servant of God from others who have, in turn, only heard others speak of the Servant of God (de auditu ab audientibus), is not foreseen.

Art. 99 - § 1. All witnesses must be trustworthy.[139]

§ 2. The witnesses are bound by an oath to tell the truth and to keep the secret of office. This oath is to be sworn before their deposition.[140]

Art. 100 - In order to prove the heroic virtues or the martyrdom and the rep­utation of holiness or of martyrdom and of the intercessory power of a Servant of God, who belonged to some Institute of Consecrated Life or Society of Apostolic Life or to a clerical and/or lay Association, a significant number of the witnesses presented by the Postulator must be from outside the Institute, Society or Association unless this is impossible on account of the particular life of the Servant of God (e.g., eremitic or cloistered life ).[141]

 

Chapter II

Who cannot be a Witness

 

Art. 101 - §1. A priest must not be admitted to testify about anything that he has come to know through sacramental confession.[142]

§ 2. Regular confessors or spiritual directors of the Servant of God must not be admitted to testify concerning anything they have come to know about the Ser­vant of God in the forum of conscience outside sacramental confession.[143]

Art. 102 - The postulator or vice-postulator of the cause must not be called to testify while he holds that office.[144]

 

Chapter III

Oral Testimony

 

Art. 103 - § 1. The witness must relate concrete facts and, in the case of the Inquiry on the virtues, precise examples of their heroic exercise.

§ 2. The witness must declare the source of his knowledge of the facts that are the object of his testimony. Otherwise his testimony is to be considered null.[145]

§ 3. At the end of the questioning, each witness must confirm his testimony with an oath and, together with the Bishop or his Delegate, the Promotor of Justice and the Notary, sign at the bottom of the acts of the testimony.[146]

Art. 104 - § 1. If necessary or advisable, other witnesses may be called to testify at any time during the Inquiry.

§ 2. If a witness indicated by the Postulator or an ex officio witness has not been heard, the reasons must be put in writing in a document that is to be included in the acts of the relative Session of the Inquiry.

 

Chapter IV

Written Declarations of Witnesses

 

Art. 105 - § 1. If the witness wishes to hand in a written declaration either at the time of his oral testimony or at another time, the Bishop or his Delegate may accept it.

§ 2. This witness must sign it and declare under oath that he is its author and that what he has written is true.[147]

§ 3. The written declaration must be included in the acts of the Inquiry.

Art. 106 - The written declaration does not substitute for the oral testimony of the author of the declaration.

 

Chapter V

Testimony of Attending Physicians

 

Art. 107 - § 1. If in the Inquiry on an allegedly miraculous healing the physicians who treated the person healed refuse to be questioned, they can prepare under oath, if possible, a written report about the illness and its course.[148]

§ 2. This report is to be included in the acts of the Inquiry.

Art. 108 - § 1. If in the Inquiry on an allegedly miraculous healing the physicians who treated the person healed should refuse to prepare a written report about the illness and its course, the Bishop or his Delegate may nominate, by means of a decree, a third party, preferably an expert in the medical field, who may take the testimony of these physicians.

§ 2. This third party must take an oath to fulfill faithfully his task and to maintain the secret of office.

§ 3. The oath must be transcribed and inserted into the acts of the Inquiry.

§ 4. Once he has obtained the testimonies of the attending physicians, the third party is to be heard by the Bishop or his Delegate, assisted by the Promotor of Justice, the Notary and the Medical Expert.[149]

 

Chapter V

Medical Experts ‘ab inspectione’

Art. 109 - § 1. If still alive, the person healed must be examined separately by two medical experts, called experts ab inspectione.[150]

§ 2. The Bishop or his Delegate must duly nominate these experts by means of a decree.

§ 3. They must swear an oath to fulfill their task faithfully and to maintain the secret of office.[151]

§ 4. Their decrees of nomination and oaths must be transcribed and inserted into the acts of the Inquiry.

Art. 110 - § 1. With all the clinical and technical means available, the two experts ab inspectione must verify only the present state of health of the person healed. Particular reference to the pathology from which the person was cured is to be made in order to ascertain the present state of health of the person healed and the duration of the healing.[152]

§ 2. Their written opinions, prepared separately, are to be handed over to the Bishop or his Delegate and inserted into the acts of the Inquiry.

§ 3. These experts must be called to testify as ex officio witnesses.[153]

 

Title IX

Use of a Tape Recorder and a Computer

 

Art. 111 - § 1. If a tape recorder is used to gather the depositions of the witnesses during the Sessions of the Inquiry, all the answers of the witnesses must be transcribed and, if possible, signed by the witnesses themselves.[154]

§ 2. At the end of the hearing, the witness must listen to his taped deposition so that he may exercise his faculty to add, suppress, correct and/or change his own testimony.[155]

§ 3. The witness must declare that he exercised the right to change his testimony and sign his name.[156]

Art. 112 - A computer may also be used for gathering the depositions of the witnesses during the Sessions of the Inquiry.

Art. 113 - The computer may be used also for the preparation of the original acts of the Inquiry, which are called the Archetype.[157]

 

Title X

Procedure of the Rogatory Inquiry

 

Chapter I

Hearing of Witnesses

 

Art. 114 - § 1. If witnesses that reside in another diocese or eparchy must be heard, and they are unable to come to the diocese or eparchy where the Inquiry is being instructed, the Bishop a quo is to send to the Bishop ad quem a letter in which he asks that a Rogatory Inquiry be instructed. In this letter the Bishop is to indicate the names and addresses of the witnesses and attach a copy of the Interrogatories prepared by the Promotor of Justice.

§ 2. The Bishop ad quem must proceed according to the Normae servandae and the present Instruction.[158]

§ 3. The witnesses must be heard by the Bishop or his Delegate, together with the Promotor of Justice and the Notary, according to those norms proper to the causes of Saints.

Art. 115 - § 1. If expedient, the Bishop or his Delegate, the Promotor of Justice and the Notary of the cause, may go to the diocese or eparchy ad quem in order to hear the witnesses in residence there. First, the written authorization of the Bishop ad quem, in whose diocese or eparchy the witnesses reside, must be obtained.

§ 2. The letter of authorization must be inserted into the acts of the Inquiry.

 

Chapter II

Preservation and Forwarding of the Acts

 

Art. 116 - § 1. The original acts (Archetype) of the Rogatory Inquiry, closed and stamped with the seals of the Bishop or his Delegate, are to be kept in the archive of the diocese or eparchy where the Rogatory Inquiry was instructed.

§ 2. A copy of the same acts, prepared according to the norms of nn. 29-30 of the Normae servandae are to be sent in a closed and sealed package to the Bishop a quo.[159]


 

PART VI

Closing of the Inquiry

 

 

Title I

“Declaration of the Absence of Cult”

 

Art. 117 - § 1. In accordance with the dispositions of Pope Urban VIII, it is prohibited for a Servant of God to be an object of public ecclesiastical cult without the previous authorization of the Holy See.[160]

§ 2. Such dispositions do not impede, in any way, private devotion toward the Servant of God and the spontaneous spreading of his reputation of holiness or martyrdom and of intercessory power.

Art. 118 - § 1. In observance of the above-mentioned dispositions, prior to the close of the Inquiry the Bishop or his Delegate must ensure that the Servant of God is not an object of unlawful cult.

§ 2. For this purpose, the Bishop or his Delegate, the Promotor of Justice and the Notary of the cause, must inspect the tomb of the Servant of God, the room where he lived and/or died, and other possible places where signs of unlawful cult may be found.[161]

§ 3. The Notary is to draw up a report on the outcome of the inspection that is to be inserted into the acts of the Inquiry.[162]

Art. 119 - § 1. If no abuses of cult are discovered, the Bishop or his Delegate is to proceed to the preparation of the “Declaration on the Absence of Cult”, that is, the declaration which attests to the fact that the Decrees of Urban VIII have been observed.[163]

§ 2. The declaration is to be inserted among the acts of the Inquiry.

 

Title II

Publication of the Acts

 

Art. 120 - § 1. Once all the documentary proofs and the testimony of the witnesses have been gathered, the Bishop or his Delegate must proceed, by means of a decree, to the publication of the acts of the Inquiry.[164]

§ 2. In the decree of publication, that is to be transcribed and inserted into the acts, the Bishop or his Delegate is to declare his decision to proceed to the definitive closing of the Inquiry.

Art. 121 - § 1. In the causes of Saints, the publication of the original acts of the Inquiry (Archetype) consists in making them available to the Promotor of Justice who has the ex officio right and duty to examine them.

§ 2. Should he deem it necessary and advisable, the Promotor of Justice is to request further investigations.[165]

Art. 122 - § 1. In the decree of publication, the faculty to examine the acts is also granted only to the postulator and/or vice-postulator of the cause. They must maintain absolute reserve on the content of the acts that are covered by the secret of the proceedings.[166]

§ 2. The postulator and/or vice-postulator may suggest to the Bishop or his Delegate the possible integration of the proofs by hearing new witnesses and/or gathering other documents.[167]

Art. 123 - The examination of the acts by the Promotor of Justice and by the postulator and/or vice-postulator must be recorded in writing and the relative doc­ument inserted into the acts of the Inquiry.

 

Title III

Translation of the Acts

 

Art. 124 - § 1. Whenever there is a need for a translation of the acts of the Inquiry, that is, of the testimony of the witnesses and of the documents, into a language accepted by the Congregation, the Bishop or his Delegate is to nominate, by means of a decree, a translator for such a task.[168]

§ 2. The translator is to swear an oath to fulfill his task faithfully and to maintain the secret of office.

§ 3. The oath is to be transcribed and the relative document inserted into the acts of the Inquiry.

Art. 125 - § 1. If advisable, the Bishop or his Delegate may allow the translation to be done during the procedural phase of the cause.

§ 2. The translation of the original acts is to be declared authentic by the Bishop or his Delegate and by the Promotor of Justice.[169]

§ 3. Two copies of the translation of the acts are to be made.

§ 4. The two copies are to be collated and compared one to the other.[170]

Art. 126 - § 1. One copy of the translation of the acts of the Inquiry is kept in the diocesan or eparchial chancery together with the acts in the original language (Archetype).

§ 2. The two copies of the translation of the acts of the Inquiry are to be sent to the Congregation.[171]

Art. 127 - The languages admitted by the Congregation for the study of causes are: Latin, English, French, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish.

 

Title IV

Copy of the Original Acts

 

Art. 128 - All the original acts of the diocesan or eparchial Inquiry constitute the Archetype.

Art. 129 - § 1. Once the instruction of the Inquiry has been completed, the Bishop or his Delegate is to order that a copy of the original acts be made unless for good reasons he has already allowed this to be done during the procedural phase of the cause.[172]

§ 2. This copy of the original acts is called the Transcript.

 Art. 130 - § 1. For the preparation of the Transcript the Bishop or his Delegate is to nominate a Copier.

§ 2. The Copier must swear an oath to fulfill his task faithfully and to maintain the secret of office.[173]

§ 3. The oath is to be transcribed and the relative document inserted into the acts of the Inquiry.

Art. 131 - § 1. If the original acts of the Inquiry (Archetype) have been transcribed by hand or by a typewriter, the Copier may make one copy of them (Transcript).

§ 2. If a computer has been utilized during the Inquiry, only one copy must be printed (Archetype). The Copier may then make a photocopy of it (Transcript).[174]

Art. 132 - § 1. Once the Transcript has been prepared in its final version, the Copier is to present it to the Bishop or his Delegate.

§ 2. The Copier is to swear an oath that he has faithfully fulfilled his task.

§ 3. The oath must be transcribed and the relative document inserted into the acts of the Session conducted specifically for the consignment of the Transcript.

Art. 133 - Generic affirmations, attesting to the diligence employed by the Copier in fulfilling his task, are not sufficient.

 

Title V

Collation and Comparison of the Acts

(“Collatio et Auscultatio”)

 

Art. 134 - § 1. After the Transcript has been given to the Bishop or his Delegate, it must be verified that all the pages of the Archetype and of the Transcript are numbered in exactly the same order (Collation of the Acts or “Collatio”).

§ 2. At the same time, the Transcript is to be compared to the Archetype in order to verify that the content of the Transcript is absolutely faithful to that of the Archetype (Collation of the Acts or “Collatio”).

§ 3. The Copier is to check carefully the collation and the comparison of the Transcript to the Archetype in the presence of the Bishop or his Delegate, of the Promotor of Justice and of the Notary.

Art. 135 - § 1. The Notary is to authenticate that the Transcript corresponds to the Archetype.[175]

§ 2. The Notary or an Adjunct Notary must place his seal and initials at the bottom of each page both of the Archetype and of the Transcript as a guarantee of the regular course of these operations.[176]

§ 3. Separate Sessions are to be held precisely for the collation and the comparison, and are to be recorded in writing.

Art. 136 - Generic affirmations by the Bishop or his Delegate, attesting to the performance of the collation and comparison of the acts of the Inquiry, are not sufficient.

Art. 137 - § 1. After the collation and the comparison of the Transcript to the Archetype, the Copier must prepare a second copy equal to the original that is called the Public Copy.[177]

§ 2. For the creation of the Public Copy, it is sufficient to photocopy the Transcript that already bears the seal and initials of the Notary on each page.[178]

 

Title VI

Carrier

 

Art. 138 - § 1. The Bishop or his Delegate must nominate by decree the Carrier, that is, the Official charged with handing over to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints the acts of the diocesan or eparchial Inquiry.

§ 2. The acts of the Inquiry that are sent to the Congregation are: the Transcript, the Public Copy, a copy of the published writings of the Servant of God already examined by the Theological Censors and their written opinions.[179]

§ 3. If a translation of the acts of the Inquiry has been made, two copies of the translated acts are also to be sent to the Congregation.[180]

§ 4. The writings of the Servant of God and the documents gathered by the experts in historical matters and in matters pertaining to archives may be sent to the Congregation in their original language.[181]

§ 5. The opinions of the Theological Censors must be translated into a language accepted by the Congregation.[182]

Art. 139 - The postulator and/or vice-postulator may also act as the Carrier, provided he has been duly nominated for such a task.

Art. 140 - The acts of the Inquiry are to be sent to the Congregation by a secure means (e.g., by hand, through the diplomatic pouch of the Holy See, etc.).[183]


 

 Title VII

Last Session

or Closing Session of the Inquiry

 

Chapter I

Last Session in general

 

Art. 141 - Before proceeding to the definitive closing of the Inquiry, the diocesan or eparchial Bishop may proceed to the canonical recognition of the mortal remains of the Servant of God, which is dealt with in Artt. 1-5 of the Appendix of the present Instruction.

Art. 142 - Once the instruction of the Inquiry has been completed, its original acts have been transcribed (Archetype), and the two copies of the Archetype (Transcript and Public Copy) have been prepared, the Inquiry is to be definitively closed with the celebration of the Last Session.

Art. 143 - § 1. The diocesan or eparchial Bishop is to preside at the Last Session.

§ 2. For just reasons he may nominate, by means of a decree, a priest as his substitute.[184]

§ 3. The faithful may participate at the celebration of the Last Session.[185]

§ 4. It is of extreme importance always to refrain from any act that could mislead the faithful into thinking wrongly that the closing of the Inquiry necessarily implies the beatification and canonization of the Servant of God.[186]

 

Chapter II

Acts of the Last Session

 

Art. 144 - § 1. In the Last or Closing Session of the Inquiry:

1° the Bishop is to declare, by means of a decree to be inserted into the acts of the Last Session, that the Inquiry is definitively closed;

2° the Carrier is to swear an oath to fulfill his task faithfully;[187]

3° the Bishop, the Episcopal Delegate, the Promotor of Justice, the Notary and the postulator and/or vice-postulator of the cause, are to swear separately that they have faithfully fulfilled their task and that they will main­tain the secret of office.

§ 2. The oaths are to be transcribed and the relative documents inserted into the acts of this Last Session.

Art. 145 - § 1. Before closing the packages containing the Archetype, the Transcript and the Public Copy, the Bishop is to order that the minutes of the Last Session are to be added to them.

§ 2. The Bishop is to order that the packages containing the Archetype are to be closed, sealed and kept in a safe place of the archive of the diocese or eparchy.

§ 3. If possible, a section of the diocesan or eparchial archive is to be reserved for the original acts of all the eventual Inquiries in the causes of Saints.

§ 4. Finally, he is to order that the packages containing the Transcript and the Public Copy are to be closed and sealed and sent to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints.[188]

 

Title VIII

Witnesses and Their Depositions 

 

Chapter I
External Inscription

 

Art. 146 - § 1. The packages containing the Transcript and the Public Copy are to be closed and stamped with the seal of the Bishop of the diocese or eparchy. In this way, the effective closing of the packages is guaranteed and the impossibility of tampering with the acts is assured.

§ 2. On each package the Bishop or his Delegate is to place the external inscription, or sheet of paper, that contains a declaration describing the contents of the package and attesting to its secure and definitive closing.

§ 3. The Bishop or his Delegate and the Notary of the Inquiry, who is to affix his seal, must sign the declaration.

 

Chapter II

Letters of the Officials of the Inquiry

 

Art. 147 - § 1. The one who has presided over the Inquiry (the Bishop or his Delegate) is to hand over to the Carrier, together with the packages, a closed and sealed envelope containing the letter addressed to the Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints.

§ 2. In the letter he must express his opinion about the trustworthiness of the witnesses and the legitimacy of the acts of the Inquiry.[189]

§ 3. He is to formulate any observations and insights that he considers useful for the study of the cause in the Roman phase.

Art. 148 - It would be useful for the study of the cause in the Roman phase if the Promotor of Justice were also to send to the Prefect a letter in which he formulates his own observations. This letter should be attached to that of the Bishop or his Delegate.[190]

Art. 149 - In the case of an Inquiry on an allegedly miraculous healing, it is suggested that the Medical Expert prepare his own report on the course of the questioning of the medical witnesses of the Inquiry that is to be attached to the other letters.[191]

 

Chapter III

Instrument of Closing

 

Art. 150 - The Instrument of Closing, which is a declaration on letterhead stationery of the Bishop with which he certifies the contents of the packages and declares that they have been sealed, is also to be put into the envelope with the letters.

 

Appendix

Canonical Recognition

of the Mortal Remains of a Servant of God

 

 

 Title I

Authentication

 

Art. 1 - § 1. According to ancient tradition of the Church, relics of the Saints and the Blessed are an object of veneration, and their tombs places of pilgrimage.

§ 2. The Congregation for the Causes of Saints has competence to decide everything concerning the authentication and the preservation of relics.[192]

§ 3. The Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments has competence concerning the cult of sacred relics.[193]

Art. 2 - § 1. It is necessary to certify that the mortal remains of a Servant of God whose cause is in progress are authentic.

§ 2. The Bishop of the diocese or eparchy where the remains are buried has competence to perform the canonical recognition of the mortal remains of the Servant of God, that is, the recognition of their authenticity.

Art. 3 - It has been a long-standing practice that the Bishop has competence to perform the canonical recognition of the mortal remains of the Servant of God before the Inquiry is closed.[194]

Art. 4 - § 1. In order to proceed to the canonical recognition, the competent Bishop may ask for instructions from the Congregation for the Causes of Saints.

§ 2. In his letter, he is to specify the exact place where the mortal remains of the Servant of God are kept (city, name of the church, chapel, public or private cemetery, etc.).

§ 3. If the remains must be transferred, he is also to include the project for the new place of burial of the Servant of God.

Art. 5 - Before doing anything to the mortal remains of a Servant of God, the diocesan or eparchial authorities must obtain the authorizations required by the local civil authorities.

 

Title II

Preservation

 

Art. 6 - § 1. In order to guarantee the best preservation of the relics of a Saint or of a Blessed, it may be necessary to conduct specialized treatment on the relics.

§ 2. In order to perform any treatment on the relics, the competent Bishop is to ask the permission of the Congregation.

§ 3. In the letter, he is to specify the exact place in which the relics or mortal remains are kept, the reasons for the treatment and the nature of the operations that are to be performed.

 

Title III

Preparation of Relics

 

Art. 7 - § 1. When the beatification or canonization is near, the Bishop, who intends to prepare relics from the mortal remains of the Venerable or the Blessed, must obtain the permission of the Congregation.

§ 2. Since the pontifical conferral of the title Venerable does not carry with it any concession of cult, the Bishop must see to it that, before the beatification, every sign of public ecclesiastical cult is scrupulously avoided.

Art. 8 - It is the competence of the postulator of the cause to prepare such relics and draw up certificates of their authenticity.

 

Title IV

Transfer

 

Art. 9 - § 1. In order to make the relics of a Blessed or the mortal remains of a Servant of God more accessible to the devotion of the people of God, it may be feasible to transfer them definitively from one place to another (e.g., from a cemetery to a church or chapel).

§ 2. The diocesan or eparchial Bishop who is competent to transfer the relics must ask the permission of the Congregation in order to proceed.

Art. 10 - § 1. In the letter addressed to the Prefect of the Congregation he must specify the exact place in which they are presently found and the place chosen for their definitive repose.

§ 2. The project for the new place of burial of the Blessed or the Servant of God is also to be included in the same letter.

Art. 11 - Before asking the permission of the Congregation, the diocesan or eparchial authorities must obtain the permissions required by local civil law.

Art. 12 - § 1. If the transfer is done from one diocese or eparchy to another, the Bishop who intends to receive the relics of the Blessed or the mortal remains of the Servant of God (the Bishop “ad quem”) must ask the consent of the Bishop of the diocese or eparchy where the remains of the Blessed or the Servant of God (the Bishop “a quo”) are located.

§ 2. In his letter addressed to the Congregation, the Bishop “ad quem is to attach a copy of the letter of consent of the Bishop “a quo”.

Art. 13 - When conducting the transfer, the Bishop is to take care that every sign of unlawful cult to a Servant of God, who is not yet beatified, is scrupulously avoided.

Art. 14 - The prescriptions of canon law are to be observed in everything con­cerning the alienation and transfer in perpetuo of relics of the Saints that are of great significance.[195]

Art. 15 - In all the above-mentioned cases the Congregation will send to the Bishops involved the rescript granting the permission and a specific Instruction indicating the procedure to be followed.

__________________________

 

The present Instruction was submitted for examination to the Cardinals and Bishops who are Members of this Congregation, and who met in Plenary Session from the 24th until the 26th days of April 2006. On the 22nd day of February 2007, Feast of the Chair of Saint Peter, the Supreme Pontiff Benedict XVI approved it and ordered its publication.

Given at Rome, from the offices of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, on the Feast of the Ascension of the Lord, this 17th day of May 2007.

 

José Cardinal Saraiva Martins

Prefect

 

Michele Di Ruberto

Titular Archbishop elect of Biccari
Secretary


 

[1] Cfr Second Ecumenical Vatican Council, Dogmatic Constitution Lumen Gentium, nn. 50-51.

[2] Cfr Acta Apostolicae Sedis 75 (1983), 349-355. In the present Instruction, the Apostolic Con­stitution, Divinus perfectionis Magister, will be cited with the symbol DPM.

[3] Cfr DPM I, 2.

[4] Ibid., I, 1.

[5] In the present Instruction, the Code of Canon Law of 1917 and that of 1983 will be cited with the symbol CIC and the respective year of promulgation. The Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches of 1990 will be cited with the symbol CCEO.

[6] Cfr Acta Apostolicae Sedis 75 (1983), 396-403. In the present Instruction, the Normae servandae in Inquisitionibus ab Episcopis faciendis in causis Sanctorum will be cited with the symbol NS and the respective number of the Norms.

[7] Cfr can. 34 CIC 1983.

[8] Cfr Lumen Gentium, n. 50; DPM, Introduction.

[9] Cfr can. 1403 CIC 1983; can. 1057 CCEO.

[10] Cfr infra Artt. 29 § 2 e 30 § 2; can. 1403 § 2 CIC 1983; can. 1400 CIC 1983; can. 1055 CCEO.

[11] Cfr cann. 1999 — 2141 in Book IV — De Processibus. Pars Secunda: De Causis Beatificationis Servorum Dei et Canonizatione Beatorum, CIC 1917.

[12] “Fama autem sanctitatis in genere nihil aliud est, quam existimatio seu communis opinio de puritate et integritate vitae, et de virtutibus ... , necnon de miraculis eorum intercessione a Deo patratis; ita ut, concepta in uno vel pluribus locis erga eos (Servos Dei) devotione, a plerisque in suis necessitat­ibus invocentur” (BENEDICT XIV, De Servorum Dei beatificatione et Beatorum canonizatione, L. II, cap. 39, n. 7).

[13] “Pariter fama Martyrii in genere nihil aliud est, quam existimatio et communis opinio, quod aliquis vel aliqua pro fide Christi, vel pro virtute, quae ad fidem Christi deducatur, illatam sibi mortem patienter tulerint, et quod signa seu miracula eorum intercessione ... secuta sint; ita ut, apud plerosque concepta devotione, in suis necessitatibus invocentur”. ibid.

[14] “ita ut, concepta in uno vel pluribus locis erga eos (Servos Dei) devotione, a plerisque in suis necessitatibus invocentur ... ita ut, apud plerosque concepta devotione, in suis necessitatibus invocentur”. ibid.

[15] Cfr infra Art. 40 § 1.

[16] “... ut probetur fama in genere, spontanea, non arte aut diligentia humana procurata, orta ab honestis et gravibus personis, continua, in dies aucta et vigens in praesenti apud maiorem partem po­puli”: cfr can. 2050 § 2 CIC 1917.

[17] DPM I, 2.1; NS n. 3, b; cfr infra Art. 17.

[18] Cfr infra Art. 40.

[19] Cfr infra Art. 89, n. 2.

[20] DPM I, 1; NS n. 1, a.

[21] NS n. 1, a.

[22] NS n. 2, a.

[23] NS n. 3, a.

[24] NS n. 2, a.

[25] Cfr infra Art. 89, n. 3.

[26] NS n. 4.

[27] NS n. 2, b.

[28] Cfr supra Art. 8.

[29] NS n. 3, b; cfr supra Art. 8.

[30] NS n. 3, c.

[31] Cfr infra Art. 68 § 3.

[32] DPM I, 1.

[33] NS n. 5, a.

[34] NS n. 5, b.

[35] NS n. 5, a.

[36] Cfr infra Art. 89, n. 1.

[37] Cfr infra Art. 36 § 1; can. 1501 CIC 1983; can. 1104 § 2 CCEO.

[38] NS n. 9, a.

[39] NS n. 9, b.

[40] Cfr infra Art. 89, n. 5.

[41] NS n.7.

[42] Cfr infra Art. 37, n. 3; Art. 2 § 3.

[43] NS n.7.

[44] Cfr infra Art. 37, n. 3, b; Art. 2 § 3.

[45] DPM, I.1.

[46] Cfr can. 2001 § 1 CIC 1917.

[47] Cfr supra Art. 30. The Servant of God who, after the pontificate of Pope Alexander III (1159­1181) and before the time established by the constitution of Pope Urban VIII (1623-1644), is ex tolerantia an object of cult according to the Decrees of Urban VIII can be considered an ancient Blessed: cfr can. 2125 § 1 CIC 1917.

[48] Cfr infra Art. 37.

[49] Cfr supra Art. 25 § 1.

[50] DPMI, 2. 5°; NS n. 32.

[51] Cfr can. 1504 CIC 1983; can. 1187 CCEO.

[52] NS n. 10, 1°.

[53] NS n. 10, 2°.

[54] NS n. 10, 3°.

[55] NS n. 15, b.

[56] NS n. 33, a.

[57] Cfr infra Art. 89, n. 4.

[58] NS n. 3, b; cfr supra Art. 7 § 1 and Art. 8 § 2.

[59] NS n.11, a.

[60] Cfr infra Art. 89, n. 6.

[61] NS n.11, b.

[62] Cfr infra Art. 89, n. 7.

[63] NS n.12, a.

[64] NS n.12, b.

[65] NS n.12, c.

[66] Cfr infra Art. 89, n. 8.

[67] NS n. 27, a.

[68] Cfr can. 470 CIC 1983; can. 252 CCEO.

[69] Cfr infra Art. 89, n. 9.

[70] Cfr infra Art. 69 § 1.

[71] NS n. 6, c.

[72] DPM I, 1.; NS n.6, a.

[73] NS n. 6, a.

[74] Cfr infra Art. 91.

[75] NS n. 6, b.

[76] NS n. 16, a; cfr can. 484, n. 2 CIC 1983; can. 254, n. 2 CCEO.

[77] NS n. 15, a; cfr infra Art. 81.

[78] NS n. 34, a; cfr infra Art. 92 § 2.

[79] Cfr can. 1468; can. 1558 § 1 CIC 1983; can. 1127; can. 1239 § 1 CCEO.

[80] DPM I.2, 2°; NS n. 13; cfr supra Art. 37, n. 2.

[81]Nomine scriptorum veniunt non modo opera inedita Servi Dei, sed etiam quae iam typis fuerint impressa; item conciones, epistolae, diaria, autobiographiae, quidquid denique vel ipse per se, vel aliena manu exaraverit”: cfr can. 2042 CIC 1917.

[82] NS n. 6, c.

[83] NS n. 13.

[84] Cfr infra Art. 74.

[85] Cfr infra Art. 89, n. 10.

[86] NS n. 14, b.

[87] NS n. 14, a.

[88] Cfr supra Art. 19 § 2.

[89] Cfr supra Art. 50 § 2.

[90] NS n. 6, c.

[91] NS n. 26.

[92] Cfr infra Art. 89, n. 11.

[93] NS n. 14, c. 9a.

[94] NS n. 12.

[95] Cfr infra Art. 89, n. 11.

[96] Cfr supra Art. 64 § 2.

[97] NS n. 21, b; cfr infra Art. 96, n. 4.

[98] NS n. 21, b.

[99] NS n. 16, c.

[100] NS 15, a; cfr supra Art. 37, Art. 64 § 1 and Artt. 68-75.

[101] NS n. 15, a; cfr supra Art. 60 § 3.

[102] Cfr can. 1563 CIC 1983; can. 1244 CCEO.

[103] Cfr can. 1564 CIC 1983; can. 1245 CCEO.

[104] Cfr Conoscenza degli Interrogatori prima dell’Inchiesta, the decision of the Congregation of 12 November 1999, Prot. N. VAR. 4959/99; cfr also can. 1565 § 1 CIC 1983; can. 1246 § 1 CCEO.

[105] NS n. 33, a; cfr supra Art. 60 § 3.

[106] DPM I. 2, 4°; NS n. 16, a; cfr supra Art. 77 § 2; can. 2087 § 3 CIC 1917.

[107] Cfr can. 1556 CIC 1983; can. 1237 CCEO.

[108] Cfr can. 1557 CIC 1983; can. 1238 CCEO.

[109] Cfr infra Art. 143 § 3.

[110] Cfr supra Artt. 47 § 2 and 48.

[111] NS n. 6, c.; cfr supra Art. 51 § 2.

[112] NS n. 36; cfr infra Art. 143 § 4.

[113] Cfr supra Art. 24 § 1.

[114] Cfr supra Art. 8 § 3.

[115] Cfr supra Art. 13 § 2.

[116] Cfr supra Art. 39.

[117] Cfr supra Art. 27 § 2.

[118] Cfr supra Art. 42 § 3.

[119] Cfr supra Art. 43 § 4.

[120] Cfr supra Art. 46.

[121] Cfr supra Art. 48 § 3.

[122] Cfr supra Art. 67.

[123] Cfr supra Artt. 72 § 1 and 73 § 4.

[124] Cfr can. 474 CIC 1983.

[125] Cfr supra Art. 56 § 3.

[126] NS n. 16, b.

[127] NS 6, c.

[128] Cfr supra Art. 60 § 4.

[129] Cfr infra Artt. 149-150.

[130] Cfr can. 1559 C/C 1983; can. 1240 CCEO.

[131] NS n. 27, c; cfr infra Art. 122.

[132] NS n. 10, 3°; NS n. 15, b; cfr supra Art. 37, n. 3.

[133] NS n. 21, a.

[134] NS n. 21, b; cfr supra Art. 76.

[135] NS n. 22, a; NS n. 34; cfr infra Art. 110 § 3.

[136] Cfr can.1553 CIC 1983; can. 1234 CCEO.

[137] NS nn. 17-18.

[138] NS n. 17.

[139] Ibid.; cfr can. 1572 CIC 1983; can. 1253 CCEO.

[140] Cfr can. 1548 § 1 CIC 1983; can. 1229 § 1 CCEO.

[141] NS n. 19.

[142] NS n. 20, n. 1°; cfr can. 1550 § 2, n. 2° CIC 1983; can. 1231 § 2, n. 2° CCEO.

[143] NS n. 20, n. 2.

[144] NS n. 20, n. 3; cfr can. 1550 § 2, n. 1° CIC 1983; can. 1231 § 2, n. 1° CCEO

[145] NS n. 23; cfr can. 1563 CIC 1983; can. 1244 CCEO.

[146] NS n. 16, a; cfr can. 1569 § 2 CIC 1983; can. 1250 § 2 CCEO.

[147] NS n. 24.

[148] NS n. 22, b.

[149] Ibid.

[150] NS n. 34, b.

[151] NS n. 6, c.

[152] NS n. 34, b.

[153] Ibid.; cfr supra Art. 96, n. 5.

[154] Cfr can. 1567 § 2 CIC 1983; can. 1248 § 2 CCEO.

[155] Cfr can.1569 § 1 CIC; can. 1250 § 1 CCEO.

[156] NS n. 16, a; can. 1569 § 2 CIC 1983; can. 1250 § 2 CCEO.

[157] Cfr infra Artt. 128 and 131 § 2.

[158] NS 26, a.

[159] NS n. 26, b.

[160] The complete title of the collection of the decrees of Pope Urban VIII (1623 - 1644) is: Urbani VIII Pontificis Optimi Maximi DECRETA servanda in Canonizatione et Beatifzcatione Sanctorum. Accedunt Instructiones, et Declarationes quas Em.mi et Rev mi S.R.E. Cardinales Praesulesque Romanae Curiae ad id muneris congregati ex eiusdem Summi Pontificis mandato condiderunt. (Romae: Ex Typographia Rev. Cam. Apostolicae, MDCXLII).

[161] NS n. 28, a.

[162] NS n. 28, b.

[163] NS 28, a.

[164] NS n. 27, b.

[165] Ibid.

[166] NS 27, c; cfr supra Art. 95.

[167] Ibid.

[168] NS n. 31, b.

[169] Ibid.

[170] Cfr infra Artt. 134 - 137.

[171] NS n. 31, b.

[172] 172 NS n. 29, a.

[173] NS n. 6, c.

[174] Cfr supra Art. 113.

[175] NS 30, a.

[176] Ibid.

[177] NS n. 29, b.

[178] Cfr supra Art. 135 § 1.

[179] NS n. 31, a; cfr infra Art. 145 § 4.

[180] NS n. 31, b.

[181] Cfr supra Artt. 62 and 68.

[182] Cfr supra Art. 127.

[183] NS n. 31, a.

[184] Cfr supra Art. 86 § 2.

[185] Cfr supra Art. 86 § 3.

[186] NS n. 36; cfr supra Art. 88.

[187] NS n. 6, c.

[188] NS 31, a; cfr supra Art. 138 § 2.

[189] NS n. 31, e.

[190] Cfr supra Artt. 56 and 91.

[191] Cfr supra Art. 93.

[192] DPM II, 3; cfr Apost. Const. Pastor Bonus, Art. 74.

[193] Cfr Apost. Const. Pastor Bonus, Art. 69.

[194] Cfr supra Art. 141; can. 2096 CIC 1917.

[195] Cfr can. 1190 § 1 CIC 1983; can. 888 § 2 CCEO.

 

 


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